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Issues relating to the acquisition and the loss of Polish citizenship are governed by the Polish Citizenship Act of April 2, 2009 (Journal of Laws 2012, item 161).
A Polish citizen may hold simultaneously Polish citizenship and citizenship of another state but even then, he or she has the same rights and obligations towards the Republic of Poland as a person holding only Polish citizenship, i.e. he or she may not effectively invoke before the Polish authorities the simultaneous holding of foreign citizenship or the rights and obligations arising from it.
Acquisition of Polish Citizenship
By birth to parents, at least one of whom is a Polish citizen – law of blood/Ius Sanguinis
By virtue of the law, a child acquires Polish citizenship when he or she is born to at least one parent who is a Polish citizen, irrespective of whether the child’s place of birth is in Poland or abroad (article 14 (1) of the Act).
By birth or by being found on the territory of Poland – law of the soil/Ius Soli
This principle applies when a child is born or found on the territory of Poland and both parents are unknown or their citizenship is undetermined or they have no citizenship (article 14 (2) and article 15 of the Act). This child acquires Polish citizenship by virtue of the law.
A child adopted by a holder or holders of Polish citizenship acquires Polish citizenship if the full adoption was completed before the child reached the age of 16. In such cases, the child is considered to have been holding Polish citizenship from the moment of his/her birth. This child acquires Polish citizenship by virtue of the law.
Polish citizenship may also be acquired:
- by being granted Polish citizenship by the President of the Republic of Poland
- by the restoration of Polish citizenship
- by being acknowledged as a Polish citizenSEE MORE